II. Events of 1787 to 1799
February 21, 1787.
Congress approved a convention in Philadelphia to revise the Articles of Confederation.
May 25, 1787.
A quorum of delegates from seven states arrived in Philadelphia to start the
meeting known as the Constitutional Convention.
July 13, 1787.
While the Constitutional Convention met in Philadelphia, the Congress of the
Confederation enacted the Northwest Ordinance, which was a plan for governing the territory north and west of the Ohio River. Freedom of religion, right to trial by jury, and public education were asserted as rights of the people. Slavery was banned.
September 17, 1787.
Each of the twelve state delegations voted to approve the final copy of the
Constitution, which had been written by participants in the Constitutional Convention at Philadelphia. The Convention ended.
September 20, 1787.
Congress received the proposed Constitution from the Philadelphia Convention.
September 28, 1787.
Congress voted to send the Constitution to the legislature of each state. Congress asked each state to hold a special convention, which would either ratify (approve) or reject the Constitution.
October 5, 1787.
Congress selected a governor and other officers for the Northwest Territory according to the terms of the Ordinance of 1787. The first governor was Arthur St. Clair.
April 7, 1788.
Veterans of the War of Independence founded Marietta, at the confluence of
the Ohio and Muskingam rivers. This was the first permanent settlement of the
Northwest territory after it was organized under the Ordinance of 1787.
June 21, 1788.
New Hampshire was the ninth state to ratify the Constitution. According to
Article VII of the Constitution, nine states had to ratify the Constitution to make it the law of the land.
April 1, 1789.
The House of Representatives, elected under the new Constitution, was organized, with thirty of its fifty-nine members present.
April 6, 1789.
The Senate met, with nine of its twenty-two members present. As required by the Constitution, senators counted ballots that had been cast by presidential electors and declared George Washington first president of the United States.
April 30, 1789.
George Washington was inaugurated as first president of the United States under the constitution of 1787.
September 25, 1789.
Congress approved twelve proposed amendments to the Constitution, which would provide certain civil liberties and rights to the people.
A military expedition, led by General Josiah Harmar pursued the Shawnee along the Scioto River. Moving north from Cincinnati, his units marched toward the Maumee valley, destroying villages and crops. Encountering resistance from a confederation of tribes under the leadership of Michikinikwa (Little Turtle), Harmar's small detachment was defeated. A subsequently deployed larger force under Harmar fought the same Native Americans to a standstill, but could not claim victory in the battle or success in resolving the tense situation.
An expedition with federal troops commanded by Arthur St. Clair was overwhelmingly defeated Nov. 4 near Fort Wayne by a smaller force of Native Americans led by Michikinikwa (Little Turtle) of the Miami.
December 15, 1791.
Virginia was the eleventh state to ratify ten of the constitutional amendments proposed by Congress. Three fourths of the states had now approved them, as required by
Article V of the Constitution. These ten amendments are known as the Bill of Rights.
Aug. 20, 1794
General "Mad" Anthony Wayne and his Legion of the United States met and defeated the confederated tribes, led by Weyapiersenwah (Blue Jacket) of the Shawnee and Michikinikwa, at the Battle of Fallen Timbers. Despite later attempts by Native Americans under Tecumseh of the Shawnee to halt white encroachment, the loss at Fallen Timbers and the ensuing Treaty of Greenville (1795) opened the lands of the Northwest Territory to white settlement and initiated the closing of them to Native Americans.
III. Events of 1800 to 1858
May 7, 1800.
A law was enacted by the federal government that established the Indiana Territory.
February 19, 1803.
Ohio became the first state formed from the Northwest Territory. Ohio entered the Federal Union as the seventeenth state.
December 5, 1804.
Governor Harrison proclaimed that the Indiana Territory had advanced to the "second or representative grade of Government" under provisions of the Northwest Ordinance.
January 11, 1805.
An act of Congress created the Territory of Michigan.
February 3, 1809.
An act of Congress created the Territory of Illinois.
Tecumseh condemned a treaty that William Henry Harrison, then governor of the Indiana Territory, made with the Indians. His action led to the Battle of Tippecanoe in November 1811. Tecumseh joined the British to fight the Americans in the War of 1812 and commanded the Indian allies. He was killed leading his forces in Canada.
War of 1812. Although war was with Britian and was fought primarily along Canadian border, at sea, and on east coast, many battles were fought with the British supported Indians in the Northwest Territory.
December 11, 1815.
A petition for statehood was approved by the Indiana legislature and sent to
the Congress of the United States. The petition claimed that Indiana Territory
had met conditions required for statehood established by the Northwest Ordinance.
April 19, 1816.
The federal government passed an Enabling Act that provided for election of delegates to a convention to write a constitution for state government in Indiana.
June 10, 1816.
Delegates assembled at Corydon to write a constitution for state government in
une 29, 1816.
Delegates to the Indiana Constitutional Convention signed the new constitution.
December 11, 1816.
James Madison, president of the United States, approved a resolution by Congress admitting
Indiana to the Federal Union as the nineteenth state.
December 3, 1818.
Illinois was admitted to the Federal Union as the twenty-first state.
April 20, 1836.
An act of Congress created the Territory of Wisconsin.
January 22, 1837.
Michigan was admitted to the Federal Union as the Twenty-sixth state.
May 29, 1848.
Wisconsin was admitted to the Federal Union as the thirtieth state.
May 11, 1858.
Minnesota became the thirty-second state. A portion of the state, east of the Mississippi River, had been part of the original Northwest Territory.
The Northwest Ordinance of 1787
General "Mad" Anthony Wayne
General Arthur St. Clair
Battle of Fallen Timbers