Treaty of Greenville
August 3, 1795
A treaty of peace between the United States of America, and the tribes of Indians called the Wyandots, Delawares, Shawanees, Ottawas, Chippewas, Pattawatimas, Miamis, Eel Rivers, Weas, Kickapoos, Piankeshaws, and Kaskaskias.
To put an end to a destructive war, to settle all
controversies, and to restore harmony and friendly
intercourse between the said United States and Indian
tribes, Anthony Wayne, major general commanding the
army of the United States, and sole commissioner for
the good purposes above mentioned, and the said tribes
of Indians, by their sachems, chiefs, and warriors,
met together at Greenville, the head quarters of the
said army, have agreed on the following articles,
which, when ratified by the President, with the
advice and consent of the Senate of the United States,
shall be binding on them and the said Indian tribes.
Art. 1: Henceforth all hostilities shall cease;
peace is hereby established, and shall be perpetual;
and a friendly intercourse shall take place between the
said United States and Indian tribes.
Art. 2: All prisoners shall, on both sides, be
restored. The Indians, prisoners to the United States,
shall be immediately set at liberty. The people of the
United States, still remaining prisoners among the
Indians, shall be delivered up in ninety days from the
date hereof, to the general or commanding officer at
Greenville, fort Wayne, or fort Defiance; and ten
chiefs of the said tribes shall remain at Greenville
as hostages, until the delivery of the prisoners shall
Art. 3: The general boundary line between the
lands of the United States and the lands of the said
Indian tribes, shall begin at the mouth of Cayahoga
river, and run thence up the same to the portage,
between that and the Tuscarawas branch of the
Muskingum, thence down that branch to the crossing
place above fort Lawrence, thence westerly to a fork
of that branch of the Great Miami river, running into
the Ohio, at or near which fork stood Loromie's store,
and where commences the portage between the Miami of
the Ohio, and St. Mary's river, which is a branch of
the Miami which runs into lake Erie; thence a westerly
course to fort Recovery, which stands on a branch of
the Wabash; thence southwesterly in a direct line to
the Ohio, so as to intersect that river opposite the
mouth of Kentucke or Cuttawa river. And in
consideration of the peace now established; of the
goods formerly received from the United States; of
those now to be delivered; and of the yearly delivery
of goods now stipulated to be made hereafter; and to
indemnify the United States for the injuries and
expenses they have sustained during the war, the said
Indian tribes do hereby cede and relinquish forever,
all their claims to the lands lying eastwardly and
southwardly of the general boundary line now described:
and these lands, or any part of them, shall never
hereafter be made a cause or pretence, on the part of
the said tribes, or any of them, of war or injury to
the United States, or any of the people thereof.
And for the same considerations, and as an
evidence of the returning friendship of the said Indian
tribes, of their confidence in the United States, and
desire to provide for their accommodations, and for
that convenient intercourse which will be beneficial to
both parties, the said Indian tribes do also cede to
the United States the following pieces of land, to
- One piece of land six miles square, at or near
Loromie's store, before mentioned.
- One piece two
miles square, at the head of the navigable water or
landing, on the St. Mary's river, near Girty's town.
- One piece six miles square, at the head of the
navigable water of the Auglaize river.
- One piece
six miles square, at the confluence of the Auglaize
and Miami rivers, where fort Defiance now stands.
- One piece six miles square, at or near the
confluence of the rivers St. Mary's and St. Joseph's,
where fort Wayne now stands, or near it.
- One piece
two miles square, on the Wabash river, at the end of
the portage from the Miami of the lake, and about
eight miles westward from fort Wayne.
- One piece
six miles square, at the Ouatanon, or Old Wea towns,
on the Wabash river.
- One piece twelve miles square,
at the British fort on the Miami of the lake, at the
foot of the rapids.
- One piece six miles square, at
the mouth of the said river, where it empties into the
- One piece six miles square, upon Sandusky
lake, where a fort formerly stood.
- One piece two
miles square, at the lower rapids of Sandusky river.
- The post of Detroit, and all the land to the
north, the west and the south of it, of which the
Indian title has been extinguished by gifts or grants
to the French or English governments: and so much more
land to be annexed to the district of Detroit, as
shall be comprehended between the river Rosine, on the
south, lake St. Clair on the north, and a line, the
general course whereof shall be six miles distant from
the west end of lake Erie and Detroit river.
post of Michilimackinac, and all the land on the island
on which that post stands, and the main land adjacent,
of which the Indian title has been extinguished by
gifts or grants to the Frewnch or English governments;
and a piece of land on the main to the north of the
island, to measure six miles, on lake Huron, or the
strait between lakes Huron and Michigan, and to extend
three miles back from the water of the lake or strait;
and also, the Island De Bois Blane, being an extra and
voluntary gift of the Chippewa nation.
- One piece
of land six miles square, at the mouth of Chikago
river, emptying into the southwest end of lake
Michigan, where a fort formerly stood.
- One piece
twelve miles square, at or near the mouth of the
Illinois river, emptying into the Mississippi.
piece six miles square, at the old Piorias fort and
village near the south end of the Illinois lake, on
said Illinois river. And whenever the United States
shall think proper to survey and mark the boundaries
of the lands hereby ceded to them, they shall give
timely notice thereof to the said tribes of Indians,
that they may appoint some of their wise chiefs to
attend and see that the lines are run according to the
terms of this treaty.
And the said Indian tribes will allow to the
people of the United States a free passage by land and
by water, as one and the other shall be found
convenient, through their country, along the chain of
posts hereinbefore mentioned; that is to say, from the
commencement of the portage aforesaid, at or near
Loromie's store, thence along said portage to the St.
Mary's, and down the same to fort Wayne, and then down
the Miami, to lake Erie; again, from the commencement
of the portage at or near Loromie's store along the
portage from thence to the river Auglaize, and down the
same to its junction with the Miami at fort Defiance;
again, from the commencement of the portage aforesaid,
to Sandusky river, and down the same to Sandusky bay
and lake Erie, and from Sandusky to the post which
shall be taken at or near the foot of the Rapids of
the Miami of the lake; and from thence to Detroit.
Again, from the mouth of Chikago, to the commencement
of the portage, between that river and the Illinois,
and down the Illinois river to the Mississippi; also,
from fort Wayne, along the portage aforesaid, which
leads to the Wabash, and then down the Wabash to the
Ohio. And the said Indian tribes will also allow to
the people of the United States, the free use of the
harbors and mouths of rivers along the lakes adjoining
the Indian lands, for sheltering vessels and boats,
and liberty to land their cargoes where necessary for
Art. 4: In consideration of the peace now
established, and of the cessions and relinquishments
of lands made in the preceding article by the said
tribes of Indians, and to manifest the liberality of
the United States, as the great means of rendering
this peace strong and perpetual, the United States
relinquish their claims to all other Indian lands
northward of the river Ohio, eastward of the
Mississippi, and westward and southward of the Great
Lakes and the waters, uniting them, according to the
boundary line agreed on by the United States and the
King of Great Britain, in the treaty of peace made
between them in the year 1783. But from this
relinquishment by the United States, the following
tracts of land are explicitly excepted:
- The tract on one hundred and fifty thousand
acres near the rapids of the river Ohio, which has been
assigned to General Clark, for the use of himself and
- The post of St. Vincennes, on the River
Wabash, and the lands adjacent, of which the Indian
title has been extinguished.
- The lands at all other places in possession
of the French people and other white settlers among
them, of which the Indian title has been extinguished
as mentioned in the 3d article; and
- The post of fort Massac towards the mouth of
the Ohio. To which several parcels of land so
excepted, the said tribes relinquish all the title and
claim which they or any of them may have.
And for the same considerations and with the same
views as above mentioned, the United States now deliver
to the said Indian tribes a quantity of goods to the
value of twenty thousand dollars, the receipt whereof
they do hereby acknowledge; and henceforward every
year, forever, the United States will deliver, at
some convenient place northward of the river Ohio,
like useful goods, suited to the circumstances of the
Indians, of the value of nine thousand five hundred
dollars; reckoning that value at the first cost of the
goods in the city or place in the United States where
they shall be procured. The tribes to which those
goods are to be annually delivered, and the proportions
in which they are to be delivered, are the following:
- To the Wyandots, the amount of one thousand
- To the Delawares, the amount of one thousand
- To the Shawanees, the amount of one thousand
- To the Miamis, the amount of one thousand
- To the Ottawas, the amount of one thousand
- To the Chippewas, the amount of one thousand
- To the Pattawatimas, the amount of one
thousand dollars, and
- To the Kickapoo, Wea, Eel River, Piankeshaw,
and Kaskaskia tribes, the amount of five hundred
Provided, that if either of the said tribes shall
hereafter, at an annual delivery of their share of the
goods aforesaid, desire that a part of their annuity
should be furnished in domestic animals, implements of
husbandry, and other utensils convenient for them, and
in compensation to useful artificers who may reside
with or near them, and be employed for their benefit,
the same shall, at the subsequent annual deliveries,
be furnished accordingly.
Art. 5: To prevent any misunderstanding about the
Indian lands relinquished by the United States in the
fourth article, it is now explicitly declared, that
the meaning of that relinquishment is this: the Indian
tribes who have a right to those lands, are quietly to
enjoy them, hunting, planting, and dwelling thereon,
so long as they please, without any molestation from
the United States; but when those tribes, or any of
them, shall be disposed to sell their lands, or any
part of them, they are to be sold only to the United
States; and until such sale, the United States will
protect all the said Indian tribes in the quiet
enjoyment of their lands against all citizens of the
United States, and against all other white persons who
intrude upon the same. And the said Indian tribes
again acknowledge themselves to be under the protection
of the said United States, and no other power whatever.
Art. 6: If any citizen of the United States, or
any other white person or persons, shall presume to
settle upon the lands now relinquished by the United
States, such citizen or other person shall be out of
the protection of the United States; and the Indian
tribe, on whose land the settlement shall be made, may
drive off the settler, or punish him in such manner as
they shall think fit; and because such settlements,
made without the consent of the United States, will be
injurious to them as well as to the Indians, the United
States shall be at liberty to break them up, and remove
and punish the settlers as they shall think proper, and
so effect that protection of the Indian lands herein
Art. 7: The said tribes of Indians, parties to
this treaty, shall be at liberty to hunt within the
territory and lands which they have now ceded to the
United States, without hindrance or molestation, so
long as they demean themselves peaceably, and offer
no injury to the people of the United States.
Art. 8: Trade shall be opened with the said Indian
tribes; and they do hereby respectively engage to afford
protection to such persons, with their property, as
shall be duly licensed to reside among them for the
purpose of trade; and to their agents and servants;
but no person shall be permitted to reside among them
for the purpose of trade; and to their agents and
servants; but no person shall be permitted to reside at
any of their towns or hunting camps, as a trader, who
is not furnished with a license for that purpose, under
the hand and seal of the superintendent of the
department northwest of the Ohio, or such other person
as the President of the United States shall authorize
to grant such licenses; to the end, that the said
Indians may not be imposed on in their trade.* And if
any licensed trader shall abuse his privilege by unfair
dealing, upon complaint and proof thereof, his license
shall be taken from him, and he shall be further
punished according to the laws of the United States.
And if any person shall intrude himself as a trader,
without such license, the said Indians shall take and
bring him before the superintendent, or his deputy, to
be dealt with according to law. And to prevent
impositions by forged licenses, the said Indians shall,
at lease once a year, give information to the
superintendent, or his deputies, on the names of the
traders residing among them.
Art. 9: Lest the firm peace and friendship now
established, should be interrupted by the misconduct
of individuals, the United States, and the said Indian
tribes agree, that for injuries done by individuals on
either side, no private revenge or retaliation shall
take place; but instead thereof, complaint shall be
made by the party injured, to the other: by the said
Indian tribes or any of them, to the President of the
United States, or the superintendent by him appointed;
and by the superintendent or other person appointed by
the President, to the principal chiefs of the said
Indian tribes, or of the tribe to which the offender
belongs; and such prudent measures shall then be
taken as shall be necessary to preserve the said
peace and friendship unbroken, until the legislature
(or great council) of the United States, shall make
other equitable provision in the case, to the
satisfaction of both parties. Should any Indian tribes
meditate a war against the United States, or either of
them, and the same shall come to the knowledge of the
before mentioned tribes, or either of them, they do
hereby engage to give immediate notice thereof to the
general, or officer commanding the troops of the
United States, at the nearest post.
And should any tribe, with hostile intentions against
the United States, or either of them, attempt to pass
through their country, they will endeavor to prevent
the same, and in like manner give information of
such attempt, to the general, or officer commanding,
as soon as possible, that all causes of mistrust and
suspicion may be avoided between them and the United
States. In like manner, the United States shall give
notice to the said Indian tribes of any harm that may
be meditated against them, or either of them, that
shall come to their knowledge; and do all in their
power to hinder and prevent the same, that the
friendship between them may be uninterrupted.
Art. 10: All other treaties heretofore made
between the United States, and the said Indian tribes,
or any of them, since the treaty of 1783, between the
United States and Great Britain, that come within the
purview of this treaty, shall henceforth cease and
In testimony whereof, the said Anthony Wayne, and
the sachems and war chiefs of the before mentioned
nations and tribes of Indians, have hereunto set their
hands and affixed their seals.
Done at Greenville, in the territory of the
United States northwest of the river Ohio, on the third
day of August, one thousand seven hundred and ninety
H. De Butts, first A.D.C. and Sec'ry to Major Gen. Wayne,
Wm. H. Harrison, Aid de Camp to Major Gen. Wayne,
T. Lewis, Aid de Camp to Major Gen. Wayne,
James O'Hara, Quartermaster Gen'l.
John Mills, Major of Infantry, and Adj. Gen'l. Caleb Swan, P.M.T.U.S.
Gen. Demter, Lieut. Artillery,
P. Frs. La Fontaine,
Tarhe, or Crane, his x mark L.S.
J. Williams, jun. his x mark, L.S.
Teyyaghtaw, his x mark, L.S.
Haroenyou, or half king's son, his x mark, L.S.
Tehaawtorens, his x mark, L.S.
Awmeyeeray, his x mark, L.S.
Stayetah, his x mark L.S.
Shateyyaronyah, or Leather Lips, his x mark, L.S.
Daughshuttayah, his x mark L.S.
Shaawrunthe, his x mark L.S.
Tetabokshke, or Grand Glaize King, his x mark, L.S.
Lemantanquis, or Black King, his x mark, L.S.
Wabatthoe, his x mark, L.S.
Maghpiway, or Red Feather, his x mark, L.S.
Kikthawenund, or Anderson, his x mark, L.S.
Bukongehelas, his x mark, L.S.
Peekeelund, his x mark, L.S.
Wellebawkeelund, his x mark, L.S.
Peekeetelemund, or Thomas Adams, his x mark, L.S.
Kishkopekund, or Captain Buffalo, his x mark, L.S.
Amenahehan, or Captain Crow, his x mark, L.S.
Queshawksey, or George Washington, his x mark, L.S.
Weywinquis, or Billy Siscomb, his x mark, L.S.
Moses, his x mark, L.S.
Misquacoonacaw, or Red Pole, his x mark, L.S.
Cutthewekasaw, or Black Hoof, his x mark, L.S.
Kaysewaesekah, his x mark, L.S.
Weythapamattha, his x mark, L.S.
Nianysmeka, his x mark, L.S.
Waytheah, or Long Shanks, his x mark, L.S.
Weyapiersenwaw, or Blue Jacket, his x mark, L.S.
Nequetaughaw, his x mark, L.S.
Hahgoosekaw, or Captain Reed, his x mark, L.S.
Augooshaway, his x mark, L.S.
Keenoshameek, his x mark, L.S.
La Malice, his x mark, L.S.
Machiwetah, his x mark, L.S.
Thowonawa, his x mark, L.S.
Secaw, his x mark, L.S.
Mashipinashiwish, or Bad Bird, his x mark, L.S.
Nahshogashe, (from Lake Superior), his x mark, L.S.
Kathawasung, his x mark, L.S.
Masass, his x mark, L.S.
Nemekass, or Little Thunder, his x mark, L.S.
Peshawkay, or Young Ox, his x mark, L.S.
Nanguey, his x mark, L.S.
Meenedohgeesogh, his x mark, L.S.
Peewanshemenogh, his x mark, L.S.
Weymegwas, his x mark, L.S.
Gobmaatick, his x mark, L.S.
Chegonickska, an Ottawa from Sandusky,
his x mark, L.S.
PATTAWATIMAS OF THE RIVER ST. JOSEPH.
Thupenebu, his x mark, L.S.
Nawac, for himself and brother Etsimethe,
his x mark, L.S.
Nenanseka, his x mark, L.S.
Keesass, or Run, his x mark, L.S.
Kabamasaw, for himself and brother Chisaugan,
his x mark, L.S.
Sugganunk, his x mark, L.S.
Wapmeme, or White Pigeon, his x mark, L.S.
Wacheness, for himself and brother Pedagoshok,
his x mark, L.S.
Wabshicawnaw, his x mark, L.S.
La Chasse, his x mark, L.S.
Meshegethenogh, for himself and brother,
Wawasek, his x mark, L.S.
Hingoswash, his x mark, L.S.
Anewasaw, his x mark, L.S.
Nawbudgh, his x mark, L.S.
Missenogomaw, his x mark, L.S.
Waweegshe, his x mark, L.S.
Thawme, or Le Blanc, his x mark, L.S.
Geeque, for himself and brother Shewinse,
his x mark, L.S.
PATTAWATIMAS OF HURON.
Okia, his x mark, L.S.
Chamung, his x mark, L.S.
Segagewan, his x mark, L.S.
Nanawme, for himself and brother A. Gin,
his x mark, L.S.
Marchand, his x mark, L.S.
Wenameac, his x mark, L.S.
Nagohquangogh, or Le Gris, his x mark, L.S.
Meshekunnoghquoh, or Little Turtle,
his x mark, L.S.
MIAMIS AND EEL RIVERS.
Peejeewa, or Richard Ville, his x mark, L.S.
Cochkepoghtogh, his x mark, L.S.
EEL RIVER TRIBE.
Shamekunnesa, or Soldier, his x mark, L.S.
Wapamangwa, or the White Loon, his x mark, L.S.
WEAS, FOR THEMSELVES AND THE PIANKESHAWS.
Amacunsa, or Little Beaver, his x mark, L.S.
Acoolatha, or Little Fox, his x mark, L.S.
Francis, his x mark, L.S.
KICKAPOOS AND KASKASKIAS.
Keeawhah, his x mark, L.S.
Nemighka, or Josey Renard, his x mark, L.S.
Paikeekanogh, his x mark, L.S.
DELAWARES OF SANDUSKY.
Hawkinpumiska, his x mark, L.S.
Peyamawksey, his x mark, L.S.
Reyntueco, (of the Six Nations, living at
Sandusky), his x mark, L.S.
Ast. Lasselle, Sworn interpreters.
H. Lasselle, Wm. Wells,
Js. Beau Bien, Jacques Lasselle,
David Jones, Chaplain U.S.S. M. Morins,
Lewis Beaufait, Bt. Sans Crainte,
R. Lachambre, Christopher Miller,
Jas. Pepen, Robert Wilson,
Baties Coutien, Abraham Williams,his x mark
P. Navarre. Isaac Zane, his x mark